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3. Fire Protection in Buildings

Fire protection in buildings is one of the most basic fire problems and Sweden are in some respects, the world leader in performance based fire protection design. The use of performance based design demands a wide understanding of fire as a phenomenon in order to ensure fire safety.



Room fire with low ventilation don-model scale testsCombustion gases are often it primarily affects people in fire situations. Today several methods exist to prevent fire gases to spread via ventilation systems in buildings. Examples of these are the various forms of fire dampers or methods with fans in operation. The manuals have a method of placing the tilluftsdonen low suggested. The aim of the project is that with initial model scale tests and calculations studying if it is possible to design a ventilation system with low current devices in such a way that the nearby fire cells do not suffer without using the throttle. The parameters studied are mainly temperature and sotinnehåll in the scattered fire gase

Publisher: SP | Author: Hans Nyman, Fire Protection Team, Haukur Ingason, SP
Proj.nr: 305-131| Year: 2014

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Evaluation of different fire scenarios influence on bearing träkonstruktioners performance and reliability.
This report summarises the results of a project which was conceived to assess the impact of different fires on the level of safety in a timber structure. The means of achieving this was to measure the response of a number of timber elements to a range of fires in a furnace and to identify and quantify the resulting factors which influence the load bearing capacity of timber construction when exposed to the temperature-time curves applied during these experiments. In total 32 timber specimen's were tested under either standard fire exposure or parametric fire exposure, comprising either a short or a long hot cool parametric fire. 10 specimen's were also subjected to destructive reference testing and all specimen's were subject to non-destructive testing at ambient temperatures reference in order to ensure uniformity between the different groups used in the different tests.

Publisher: SP | Author: David Lange, Lars Boström, Joachim Schmid and Joakim Albrektsson, SP
Proj.nr: 303-121| Year: 2014

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The function of polypropylenfibrer in brandutsatt concrete
Fire spalling of concrete is a phenomenon that is known for a very long time. There have always been cases where parts of the cross section spjälkat by the quick heating of concrete. So to a certain extent the effects from fire cleavage included in the large database of fire tests and experiences from the fires of our knowledge on fire resistance of concrete structures based on. But in the development and use of more dense concrete qualities, which in many cases turned out to be more prone to splitting into several types of constructions, it has become more urgent to highlight the phenomenon more in depth because, when it occurs, has a direct effect on the fire resistance. Also the use of polypropylenefibrer (PP fibres) as fire splitting inhibitors fall within the scope of this thesis.

Publisher: SP, Government Research Institutes| Proj.nr: 306-071| Year: 2013

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Author: Robert Jansson, SP



The influence of local fire on constructions
With plattermometrar can measure the effective temperature of a design are exposed. To get a more accurate picture of which fire a construction that is exposed to a localized fire developed a special type of plattermometrar.

Publisher: SP, Government Research Institutes | Proj.nr: 302-111| Year: 2013

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Author: Ulf Wickström, Alexandra Byström, David Lange and Johan Sjöström, SP



Development of theory for the calculation of time to ignition.
A brand new simple and precise formula has been developed for calculating time to ignition of surfaces exposed to thermal radiation. The method can be used to assess the time to ignition for objects/surfaces that beifnner itself in the air with room temperature but exposed to radiation from flames. It may, for example. be a subject in the early stages of a fire or a facing wall in a nearby house where it will flame out through förnsteröppnignar. Method, e.g. used for evaluation of the results of this test method for determining ignition temperature and/or material properties. The new method has been developed with the support of noggrana numeriksa calculations and finite element calculation with Duhamel superpositonsteknik. The comparison has been made with established modeling techniques which proved to be very grossly incorrect. official

Publisher: SP, Government Research Institutes | Proj.nr: 300-121| Year: 2013

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Online article: Superposition with Non-linear Boundary Conditions into Fire Sciences


Author: Ulf Wickström and Johan Sjöström, SP



Air curtain to prevent proliferation
The idea of using air curtains as a smoke barrier has been discussed among for example. brand consultants. The aim of the project is that based on existing products ' capabilities and previous investigations discuss the basic parameters required for design of air curtains that smoke barriers through theory, experiments and CFD calculations. The report describes the shell attempts (1: 4) and CFD simulations of a lineup with an air curtain in a doorway against a platform with an escalator connected in an underground station. The tests were carried out at SP: s plant in Borås. The choice of criterion (what will be achieved with the smoke barrier) is crucial for capacity requirements. The study was a maximum rise in temperature of 5 ° c.

Publisher: SP, Government Research Institutes| Proj.nr: 303-111| Year: 2014

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Author: Haukur Ingason, SP and Hans Nyman, Brandskyddslaget



Fire protection requirements for tents and tältlika building structures
Textile fabrics used increasingly in various types of building structures, both in the permanent and especially in temporary structures. The traditional use of textile fabrics for larger structures have been for tents. In recent years, the use of textile fabrics come to include new areas such as event buildings constructed for a contest or other major events. These buildings may consist of several storeys and be designed with walls and roof of textile fabric. Another example of a new and growing use of textile fabrics are weather protection with new buildings and refurbishment of multi-storey buildings. To dress this up the building during the work with textile fabrics on the outside of the scaffolding, which results in a permanent building inside a temporary tent structure.

Publisher: SP, Government Research Institutes| Proj.nr: 305-111| Year: 2013

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Author: Per B, Anna bergstrand, Nick Neumann, Ida Larsson, Per Thureson, SP and Staffan Bengtson, Brandskyddslaget

 

Simple temperature calculation models for compartment fires.
Models to calculate the fire temperature for compartments are of great importance when designing fire protection in buildings, both to save lives and to save money. There are a range of models that are good at estimating the fire temperatures for compartments with surrounding structures made of concrete, brick, wood and other similar building materials. However, there are very few simple models for compartments with thermally thin surrounding structures, with- or without insulation. 
The purpose with this report is to show that it is possible to calculate the fire temperature within different types surrounding structures with simple models. The purpose is also to present the results in a pedagogical way.

Publisher: LTU, Luleå University Of Technology | Job no: 301-091| Year: 2011

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Author: Olov Sundström, Sarah Gerrard



Concrete structures after fire safety

Every year a large number of concrete structures damaged by fires. After the fire, a condition assessment of concrete construction be undertaken to assess whether it needs repaired or in serious cases, rivas. At the State assessment are documented Visual damage and results of measurements to detect the damage and assess the injury level. It is important to state the assessment can be done with good accuracy, not only for security purposes but also for economic reasons.
This report consists of a literature review of test methods that are commonly found in licensing assessments described and part of an experimental part where the methods studshammare, ultrasound and microscopy is used in conjunction with a new methodology that has been developed to evaluate the brandpåverkad concrete.
Publisher: SP | Author: Joakim Albrektsson, Mathias Flansbjer, Jan Erik Lindqvist, Robert Jansson
Job no: 301-091
|Year: 2011

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Technical changes in the installation of sprinklers in wooden buildings
A joint Nordic project which studied the use of sprinklers in wooden buildings on fire safety.
The project resulted in a method to verify the impact of sprinklers in wooden buildings, both conventional sprinkler and residential sprinkler.
Publisher: SP | Author: Frederick Nystedt
Job no: 309-081
|Year: 2011
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Textile construction components
Textile materials are used in different types of buildings both in Sweden and abroad. This project is part of the EU project Contex-T, where SP has been involved as a project partner brandexpertis and by a reference group has been able to take account of Swedish conditions. The project's objective is, inter alia, been to develop safe, healthy and economical lightweight buildings of textile structures.
Publisher: SP | Job no: 307-071 | Year: 2010
Read the report: (A) summary of fire regulations, requirements and test methods for the technical textiles used in buildings, Patrick Van Hees, Per Blomqvist
Read the report:Fire tests with textile membranes on the market-results and method development of cone calorimeter and SBI test methods, Per Blomqvist, Maria Hjohlman
Read the report: Fire Safety Engineering of textile buildings following the prescriptive requirements in Sweden, Per Blomqvist, Maria Hjohlman, Staffan Bengtsson
Read the report: (A) burn-through model for textile membranes in buildings as a tool in performance-based fire safety engineering, Per Blomqvist, Petra Andersson, Joel Andersson, Andreas Lennqvist, Heimo Tuovinen
Read the report: Large-scale fire tests with textile membranes for building applications, Per Blomqvist, Petra Andersson
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Measurement and calculation of heat transfer to brandutsatta designs
The term adiabatic temperature AST is about to be introduced internationally in brandtekniken as a measure of the thermal impact. AST can be measured approximately with the so-called plate thermometer. In order to show that work was done a few simple experiments.
Publisher: SP | Authors: Ulf Wickström, Robert Jansson, Heimo Tuovinen
Job no: 310-081
|Year: 2009

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Multiparametrisk study of brandrök
A new method (infrared polarisationsspektroskopi, IRPS) has been used for the measurement of toxic gases in fire situations. The method proved extremely robust and can be used to make measurements in very sotiga and hard-to-reach environments. (Project number 303-071)
Publisher: SP + Lth | Author: Michael Försth, Heimo Tuovinen, Zhongshang Li, Zhiwei Sun, Marcus Aldén, Bo Li
Job no: 303-071
|Year: 2009

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Full scale fire test of fire in not insulated vents for catering environment
Ventilation Association of Plåtslageriernas Association started on behalf of its members in an investigation regarding sealing masses in imkanaler [1]. The intention was to study how various channels and sealing masses with its specific characteristics, density requirements after washing and after fire and its suitability in catering environments. A series of initial tests were carried out at the Räddningsverkets school in Rosersberg. These tests were conducted with three different channels, and the result was that two of the three were found not to satisfy a fire but fell apart. In conclusion, this study showed that there is a need to investigate how a imkanal should be designed to withstand the fire requirements as well as to examine whether current recommendations from industry are appropriate in terms of flame propagation through the imkanaler in a flame cell.
Publisher: SP | Author: Lars Boström
Job No.: 305-071
|Year: 2008

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Smoke diffusion and temperature distribution of fires in commercial premises
Calculation of the smoke propagation and gas temperatures by using data models is becoming increasingly common to design fire protection in different premises, e.g. to determine the conditions for the evacuation. In this context, it is important to know how well the models match the reality and the factors that affect the calculation results. This project has had as its main objective to create a basis for such comparisons.
Publisher: SP | Author: Anders Lönnermark, Anders Björklund
Job no: 308-071
|Year: 2008

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Fire protection and loose furnishings-a guide
Interior products is often a strong contributing factor to fires formation and evolution, and there is a link to many fatal fires. Fire statistics over the period 2005-2007 shows on almost 3,000 cases involving movable furnishings were the start subjected to fire. Ordinary objects are beds, seating furniture and curtains. The statistics also show that about a third of cases consists of fire.
Publisher: SP | Author: Björn Sundström, Staffan Bengtsson, Ida Larsson, Marton Olander, Anders Apell
Job no: 302-061
|Year: 2009

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Detection of ignition and characterisation of pyrolysis, fire gases and incandescent fire
Measurement of ion flow between two eletroder has been carried out in a proganflamma and in this test method. The aim of stydien was to see if the ion stream can user to detect the ignition in konalorimetern. This would be anvädbart because there are already two eletroder used for pilot ignition in konaklorimetern. The new approach could therefore be implemented relatively simply and cost-effectively. The reason why it is interesting that eletroniskt detection of spontaneaous combustion is that that this today is performed by an operator. The determination of when ignition occurs, therefore subjective and operator-dependent.
Publisher: SP + FOI | Author: Michael Försth, Anders Larsson
Job no: 311-081
|Year: 2009

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The levels of hydrogen cyanide in het brandrök decreases with distance from the fire
Experiment on a small scale and CFD-Simulations show that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) decreases in brandrök if the temperature is high, approximately 600 ° c. At 200 ° C and below are no appreciable changes in the smoke.
SP has in this project studied how concentrations of cyanvcäte (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO), vary in brandrök after the smoke made the fire room.
Publisher: SP | Author: Heimo Tuovinen, Per Blomqvist
Job No.: 333-051
|Year: 2007

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Floor material significance at room fires
Test standard EN ISO 9239-1, also known as the floor method, used today for fire classification of flooring materials in buildings. It shows how the flooring materials behave in the event of fire, by measuring the length of the flame spread and smoke development in reduced scale. Experiments carried out at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, shows that the flooring material can behave very differently in full scale and that a higher fire class does not necessarily give a better fire protection in a room fire.
Publisher: SP | Author: Patrik Johansson, Jesper Axelsson, Tommy Hertzberg
Job no: 300-061
|Year: 2007

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Prevention of accidents and damage caused by local fireplaces including gas channel. A thermal analysis
Local fireplaces of various kinds are becoming increasingly common as oil and gas prices are rising. Most of these products are approved, which among other things means that they passed a safety test according to established methods. These techniques are designed so that the fire risk is non-existent, so long as the usage is what is deemed reasonable. However, there are factors that make that fire risk is likely to increase in some individual cases.
Publisher: ÅF Process AB | Author: Elizabeth Smith
Job No.: 332-051
|Year: 2006

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Protection against smoke spread through the ventilation system with stopped fans and förbigångar-risk assessment and design
Stuffed fans is an older method of protection against fire gas spread through the ventilation system, and by a fire in a building be stopped fans and ventilation duct system opens up with förbigångar if necessary.
Publisher: Lth | Author: Lars Jensen
Job number: 313-001
|Year: 2006

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Pressurisation stairwells for escape
Enclosures used in flerplansbyggnader for evacuation in case of fire. Pressurisation enclosures used to prevent smoke spreading into the stairway from brandutsatta floor plan, and thus facilitates evacuation and rescue and firefighting efforts.
Publisher: Lth | Author: Lars Jensen
Job no: 330-031
|Year: 2005

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Measurement of thermal temperatures at high temperatures
The thermal characteristics is an important basis of theoretically want to studying structures fire resistance.
Publisher: SP | Author: Robert Jansson
Job no: 328-031
|Year: 2004

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The world's largest fire experiments in road tunnel
After several major tunnel fires in Europe, SP fire technology mandated, inter alia, Research Board to carry out large-scale fire experiments in the runehamar tunnel in 2003.
Publisher: SP | Author: Haukur Ingason, Anders Lönnermark
Job number: 329-031
|Year: 2004

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Free database of fire data
SP has created a database with information from fire testing on different materials. This can be used as a means to create large fires.
Publisher: SP | Author: Jesper Axelsson, Tommy Hertzberg, Bjorn Sandstrom
Job No.: 327-021
|Year: 2005

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Design fires in enclosed spaces
The basis for a balanced fire engineering of buildings, tunnels, or vehicles is the basis of design fire. The assumptions we make about the fire initial size and fire development will govern the design time for detection, evacuation and släckinsats.
Publisher: SP | Author: Patrick van Hees, Björn Sundström, Tommy Hertzberg
Job no: 314-001
|Year: 2003
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Acceptable risk in the design of evacuation safety
The aim of the project is to highlight the problems in connection with the valuation of risk at fire engineering of fire safety.
Publisher: Lth | Author: Johan Lundin
Job no: 319-011
|Year: 2002

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Design rules for brandutsatta light steel structures
The project has resulted in new, valuable knowledge about the fire resistance behavior of light steel constructions, as well as the load carrying capacity is affected at elevated temperatures.
Publisher: SBI, The Steel Construction Institute, Stockholm, Sweden | Author: Peter Karlström
Job number: 325-021
|Year: 2004

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Design by fire from field models
Recently carried out at SP a project that examined the possibility of using the zone models to create the design fires. The starting point was the use of data from small scale fire tests on ytskikten and then running a simulation of a room fire with flame zone model.
Publisher: SP | Author: Jesper Axelsson, Tommy Hertzberg, Cecile Cohe
Job no: 323-021
|Year: 2004

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New utility classes for brandskyddat wood
Brandskyddat wood by architects and builders such as wall and ceiling linings where you normally wood cannot be used under the current Swedish building regulations in the BBR. One way is to use the brandskyddat wood. But most traditional fire protection products are not persisted at utomhusanvändning. The issue was brought up mainly at the Nordic level as a result of the investigations.
Publisher: wood technology, Institute for träteknisk research | Author: Birgit Östman
Job no: 326-021
|Year: 2004

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Future fire standards for train-EU projects FIRESTARR
SP Swedish testing and Research Institute have taken part in a European project with the aim to enhance fire safety in trains and subway. The project aims to propose common fire requirements at European level for all the interior materials in a coach.
Publisher: SP | Author: Jesper Axelsson
Job no: 308-971
|Year: 2003

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Jönköping fire, flame heights
Because it largely lacks knowledge about how the flames from the roof of the burning buildings look has been studied in this report of a fire in the spring of 2001 in the old wooden building, Kv. Arcadia in Jönköping. The work is a first step in the work on creating more awareness around the flames through the roof from total fires in buildings and illuminate the methodology.
Publisher: Fire Protection Team | Author: Erik Grahn, Ann-Catrin Sandström
Job no: 320-011
|Year: 2002

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Åldringens impact on the structures fire resistance – a pilot study
It is well known that the properties of certain materials can be changed by the ageing which could affect the fire resistance. Under a project funded by the Research Board, a number of constructs analysed in respect of åldringens effect on the fire resistance.
Publisher: SP | Author: Lars Boström
Job no: 322-011
|Year: 2003

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Production of hydrogen cyanide can be simulated by CFD
Formation and spread of the extremely toxic fire gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) formed by a fire in commonly used materials in our home environment, can now be simulated with a calculation tool.
Publisher: SP | Author: Heimo Tuovinen, Per Blomqvist
Job no: 321-011
|Year: 2003

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Fires gives high levels the inhaled particles only
During the 1990s, several studies which were carried out using statistical methods showed samvariation between sickness and death rates in a population and partikelhalten of ambient air. Research has shown that it is the smallest, so-called ' ultra fine ' particles with a diameter of 10 to 100 nm (1 nm = 10-9 m) which is the most damaging. Small particles are formed in large quantities during fires.
Publisher: SP | Author: Per Blomqvist, Tommy Hertzberg, Marianne Dalene, Gunnar Skarping
Job number: 324-021
|Year: 2003

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Steel constructions of several storeys-fire-
Part 2
The research project "steel structures in several floors-fire" is divided into two parts. Part 1 has been carried out by the Fire Safety Design and includes a literature review, computer simulations of fire tests and structural analyses. Part 2 has been performed by the Steel Construction Institute (SBI) and aims at the development of design models, development of design models for large deformations and practical recommendations for fire protection engineering design activities.
Publisher: SP | Author: Heimo Tuovinen, Per Blomqvist
Job no: 321-011
|Year: 2003

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Fire resisting wooden houses
The Nordic project fire resisting wooden has, among other things, resulted in the Nordic Handbook with the same name kommitut in a new and expanded edition. Among others are now designs with solid wood.
Publisher: wood technology, Institute for träteknisk research | Author: Birgit Östman, Björn Karlsson, Mr König, Mr Esko Mikkola, Vidar Town, Jorgen Carlsson
Job No.: 315-001
|Year: 2002

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Fire resistance of self compacting concrete
For self compacting concrete is the strain to fire more than normal because the structure is denser due to file clay interference. This project has sought to document the fire-fastness of soul compacting concrete and a series of studies and experiments have been carried out.
Publisher: SP + Lth + Skanska | Job no: 317-001| Year: 2003
Read the report : The Performance of Some Self Compacting Concretes When Exposed to Fire, Lars Boström

Read the report: fire resistance of self compacting concrete, Christer Dieden, Ulf Jönsson

Steel constructions of several storeys-fire-
Part 1
The research project "steel structures in several floors" is divided into two parts, with the first part of Fire Safety Design and includes a literature review, computer simulations of fire tests and structural analyses. The second part of the project implemented by the Steel Construction Institute "SBI) and aims at the development of design models, development of design technology for large deformations and practical recommendations.
Publisher: Fire Safety Design, Malmö, Sweden | Author: Yngve Anderberg, Sebastian Jeansson
Job no: 310-981
|Year: 2001

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Location and evaluation of fire spread in buildings
In connection with fires in older homes, it is sometimes found that the fire has spread in ways that could not have expected; through the cracks, channels and cavities which have not been known for not been detected at the time of inspection.
Publisher: BELAB, Kista | Author: Johan Lens, Fredrik Sonnegård, Kennet Rydén
Job no: 301-972
|Year: 2001

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Development of engineering tools for calculation of flame spread
The results of the work on the simple, thermal models shows that they can give rough estimates for specific scenarios. A more complex, physical pyrolysmodell is also studied within the project.
Publisher: SP + Lth | Author: Heimo Tuovinen, Björn Karlsson, Patrick van Hees, Jesper Axelsson, Daniel Gojkovic, Hans Hultquist
Job no: 306-971 + 307-971
| Year: 1999

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New guidelines required for fire engineering design activities
The conclusions of a recently completed study of some forty fire protection documentation is that serious deficiencies occur when to show that society's demands on security are fulfilled.
Publisher: Lth | Author: Johan Lundin
Job no: 316-001
|Year: 2001

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Design by calculated risk
Fire in the engineering design activities for personal protection has recently developed after the introduction of risk-based methods. This allows dimension by calculation can be performed in a more structured and cost effective manner.
Publisher: Lth | Job no: 302-971 + 309-981 + 312-991| Year: 2000
Read the report: Tolerable Fire Risk Criteria for Hospitals, Fredrik Olsson

Read the report: Uncertainties in the variables in the analyses, and fire engineering, Henrik Johansson

Read the report: Fire engineering with risk-based equations, Fredrik Olsson, Håkan Frantzich

Read the report: Methodology for risk-based design by calculation, Per Becker

Read the report: Cost-efficient design of fire protection, Johan Lundin, Fredrik Olsson

Read the report: Cost-efficient design of fire protection, Håkan Frantzich, Johan Lundin
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New instructions for wooden houses in multiple tiers
Mainly dealt with easy-to-build system with rule skeleton, insulation and cladding. The instructions provide solutions for the requirements of building regulations in the Nordic countries. Some minor variations can occur between countries ' requirements.
Publisher: wood technology, Institute for träteknisk research | Author: Birgit Östman, Björn Karlsson, Mr König, Mr Esko Mikkola, Vidar Town, Lars Walleij
Job no: 303-971
|Year: 2000

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Self compacting concrete with good fire released properties
Spalling of concrete depends on thermal stresses and high port pressure. It is, therefore, a greater risk of a dense concrete remnant breaks down. Self compacting concrete, which often contain very fine material, is an example of a dense concrete. Fire the processing results in a reduced cross-section and reinforced ring can be muscles freed. This results in a deterioration of the bearing capacity of the construction, which is why we need to find alternatives and solutions to manage a potential spalling.
Publisher: Skanska Sweden AB + Sika Sveriga AB | Author: Henrik Nilsson, Iad Saleh
Job no: 331-041 + 301-061
| Year: 2009