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4. Fire Protection in Transportation

Fire in transport (e.g. aircrafts, ships and trains) or vehicles have the potential to cause large losses of both lives and property. Depending on the type of vehicles, various efforts need to be taken in order ​​to reduce the effect of a fire.



The production of toxic gases in case of fire in lithium-ion batteries and extinguishing fire in lithium ion batteries.
Batteries are used increasingly for many different applications such as tools, computers and vehicles. Batteries contain a lot of energy and some of them may, if they reheated by e.g. limited refrigeration, ignited during the explosionsliknande forms. Several examples of exploding laptops, for example. found on Youtube, and an example of a tragic accident is the case where an entire house burned down and all in the family were killed in a fire caused by a laptop on charge on a sofa.

Publisher: SP| Author: Petra Andersson, Per Blomqvist, Anders Lafferty, Frederick L
Proj.nr: 402-111 |Year: 2013
Read report / Read info sheet



Security in mass transport systems, METRO
METRO was a research project about fire-and explosion safety in underground constructions for rail transport. The project focused on both tunnels and stations below ground. It was a multidisciplinary project in which researchers and graduate students from nine organizations interacted with practitioners to improve safety in future mass transportation system below ground. METRO was launched in december 2009 and was completed in december 2012. The overall objective of the project was to develop new knowledge/information which leads to increased security for passengers, staff and emergency services in the event of fire or terrorist attack in underground constructions for rail transport.

Proj.nr: 400-061| Year: 2012

Read the report: The Metro Project-Final report
Author: Ingason H, Kumm M, N D, He A, Claesson A, Li Y. Z., Fridolf K, Åkerstedt R, Nyman H, Dittmer T, F R, J B, Meyer G, Bryntse A, Carlberg T, Newlove-Eriksson L, Palm (A).

Read the report: A questionnaire study about fire safety in underground rail transportation systems
Author: Karl Fridolf, Daniel Nilsson, LTH, Fire Technology

Read report: Carried Fire Load Mass Transport Systems
Author: Mia Kumm, Mälardalen University, Sweden

Read the report: Fire evacuation in undrground transportation systems: a review of accidents and empirical resarch
Author: Karl Fridolf, LTH, Fire Technology

Read the report: Metro-Calculated explosion structural damage.
Author: Rickard Forsén, FOI

Read the report: Metro-Scale model tests
Author: Tobias Carlberg, Roger B, FOI

Read the report: Model-scale metro car fire tests
Author: Anders Lönnermark, Johan Lindström, Ying Zhen Li, CR

Read the report. Full-scale fire tests with a commuter train in a tunnel
Author: Anders Lönnermark, Alexander Claesson, Johan Lindström, Ying Zhen Li, Mia Kumm, Haukur Ingason. SP/Mälardalen University

Read the information bulletin /Read Summary

See video from the trials in Arvika.

Read article from "new technologies, 2011-09-19"



Laboratory experiments with a decorative material for subway cars (included in METRO)
Through the research project (METRO) developed a better understanding of how Metro-light rail cars or burns. Implemented full-scale in a tunnel shows that at worst it can fire be upwards of 80 MW from a cart in a few minutes. On behalf of the SWEDISH FIRE RESEARCH BOARD and as part of the METRO project, conducted laboratory experiments where the SP, among others. studied how much combustible material needed in the immediate area of the ignition source for the fire to flashover.



Publisher: SP | Author: Alexander Claesson, Anders Lönnermark, Haukur Ingason, Johan Lindström, Ying Zhen Li and Mia Kumm
Proj.nr: 403-111 |Year: 2012
Read report / Read flyer / Read summary

Read article from "new technologies, Sept 2011



Temperature calculations in tunnel fires

We're building more and more underground constructions and tunnels in Sweden. The need for knowledge in this area is still large.
Publisher: Fire Protection Team | Author: Haukur Ingason, Hans Nyman
Job no: 401-091
| Year: 2010
Read Report / Read information update / Summary



New installation recommendations for sprinkler systems on the ro-ro deck on ships
New types of loads on truck, new construction materials in vehicles and the increased use of plastic materials has contributed to a higher fire load ro-ro decks. In addition, new vehicle fuels, electric and hybrid cars and hydrogen powered cars to change fire risks. The objective of this project was to produce an information package for installation of more modern fire sprinkler technology.
Download the five reports and infobladet in Swedish or in English as pdf files.
Publisher: SP | Author: Magnus Arvidson
Job no: 401-081
| Year: 2008
Report 1 / report 2 / report 3 / 4 Report / Report 5 / information update / Summary



Design fires in trains and buses

In the design of emergency exits and fire protection used so-called design fires. This is a measure of the fire to be expected at a fire incident. In this project, we studied how to determine the design fires for trains, buses and similar vehicles. The focus has been on the expected fire development until flashover.
Publisher: SP | Authors: Maria Hjohman, Michael Försth, Peter Axelsson
Job no: 401-051
| Year: 2009
Read rapport_sv/ Read rapport_eng / Read info sheet



Water-based firefighting systems can be an alternative to the carbon dioxide system in large ship engine room
Typically used CO2 systems such as fire-fighting equipment in large ship's engine room. In recent years, however, they become increasingly contested, due to high levels of personal security risks and for environmental reasons. Many have suggested that water-based firefighting systems could be a better option.
Publisher: SP | Author: Haukur Ingason, Magnus Arvidson
Job no: 400-041
| Year: 2005
Read Report1 / Read report 2 / Read info sheet



Model testing provides valuable information about sprinkler systems in tunnels
A contributing factor to the tunnel disasters which have occurred lately in Europe is the rapid fire spread between the vehicles. The high fire load in combination with ventilation have meant that the fires have become much more intense than the fires which caused the fire technical calculation.
Publisher: SP | Author: Haukur Ingason
Job No.: 406-021
| Year: 2006
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Marine ventilation and fire

Fire protection team has conducted a literature review on ship's ventilation and fire. The aim of the study was, among other things, to study existing smoke control installation components-control system and to make proposals for a new system.
Publisher: Fire Protection Team | Author: Hans Nyman
Job no: 402-051
| Year: 2006
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Civil protection intervention plans

Civil protection intervention planning involves several different phases, which include, in addition to the preparation of the plan consists of the collection of data, analysis of riskobjektet, consultation with the installation owner, consultation with the emergency personnel, exercises, etc., the preparation of action plans is part of the strategic planning of a rescue operation and should be done with the involvement of users.
Publisher: Fire & Risk Technology | Author: Birger Lennmalm
Job no: 419-935
| Year: 2001
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FOA and SP ventilate brandrök in tunnels

SP and FOA have conducted fire tests of a model tunnel (1: 8) to show how effective ventilation systems can save lives and facilitating civil protection intervention in the event of tunnel fires.
Publisher: FOI | Author: Haukur Ingason, Per Shorthand
Job No.: 403-981
| Year: 1999
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