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6. Fire Protection and Risks in Industrial settings

Industries are developing and changing continuously to meet the market demand for new products and solutions. Research is needed to optimize fire protection in a highly changing environment where new processes, new manufacturing methods and short lead times require that the production is safe, secure and flexible.


ETANKFIRE-burning behaviour in ethanol fuels
The purpose of this part of the ETANKFIRE project has been to provide information on burning behaviour of relatively large scale etanolens, i.e. avbrinningshastighet and heat radiation at different distances from the fire. This has a direct impact on the need for protective measures, such as the need for cooling of adjacent cisterns to prevent fire spread in a large fire. Experience from smaller fires on few square meters is that they fuel containing a high percentage of alcohol (such as Ethanol) rays less and therefore have less thermal influence on their environment than petroleum-based fuels such as gasoline. The large-scale experiments now carried out confirms, however, that a large-scale fire, representing the surface of a bränslecistern, the reverse conditions. The radiation from a large-scale ethanol fire can be several times higher than for the corresponding gasoline fires.

Publisher: SP | Author: Henry Persson, Johan Sjöström and Francine Amon.
Proj.nr: 603-111
| Year: 2013

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Fortsättningsstudie: detection of ignition and characterisation of pyrolysis, fire gases and incandescent fire.
This report is a continuation of a feasibility study of the possibilities were studied using ion current measurement diagnostic method within fire technology, mainly ISO 5660 this test method. The positive outcome of the feasibility study led to this extension project. Publisher: SP | Author: Michael Försth, Raul Ochoterena (SP), Mattias Elfsberg (FOI)

Job no: 601-091 | Year: 2011

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The use of expanded glass as fire protection in petrochemical industry
Expanded glass can be a highly effective fire protection in the dykes and the corresponding spaces where risk of fire can occur in the spillage of flammable goods. This was something that clearly showed the fire tests were conducted at a seminar organised by SP-fire technology in Dallas on March 25, 2010 under a Brandforskprojekt. The seminar was attended by approximately 30 participants from industry, emergency services and Government agencies.
Publisher: SP | Author: Henry Persson, Michael Rahm
Job no: 602-091
| Year: 2010
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Fires in industrial premises
It is important to be able to estimate the risk of fire spread between industrial buildings. In today's regulatory environment is a requirement for a maximum radiation level during a given period of time. How to calculate because of the information generated for each item. But the uncertainty of the input parameters used in the calculation models are often large. Therefore, a research project that provides overview of the methods of calculation of fire spreading and validation experiment for radiant and flame height calculation in model scale.
Publisher: SP | Author: Haukur Ingason, Heimo Tuovinen, Anders Lönnernark
Job no: 601-071
| Year: 2010
Read the report: Industrial fires — An Overview, Haukur Ingason, Heimo Tuovinen, Anders Lönnernark
Read the report: Fire spread between industry premises, Haukur Ingason, Anders Lönnernark
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Finish fire hazard with regard to the absorption of thermal radiation
Absorptiviteten of a surface is a measure of how much of the incoming radiation is absorbed. Fire is an important component of radiation heat transport from a burning object to an object that has not yet taken fire. In this project has absorptiviteten for 72 products tested.One of the findings of the study is that absorptiviteten often decreases when a material is exposed to the heat and start förkolna. This is in contrast to earlier assumptions about the growing absorptivitet of carbonisation.
Publisher: SP | Author: Michael Försth, Arne Roos
Job no: 603-081
| Year: 2009
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Ignition ability of electro-static discharge from non conductive solid materials
More plastic material is used increasingly in the industry today. Plastics are usually inexpensive and easy to manage. Sometimes also hygiene and chemical resistance as the reason why moving to plastic. In environments where potentially explosive atmospheres may occur can these plastics represent an ignition source:
Publisher: Sound Safety Advisers | Writer: Ulrika Nilsson/Ken Nessvi
Job No.: 604-081
| Year: 2011
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Inerting of silos

Larger silos should be prepared for gas injection-formerly project on extinguishing fires in silos in combination with practical experience from actual fires have shown that inerting with nitrogen that is fed near silons pond is a very suitable släckmetodik. This means that the oxygen progressive acclimatization supplanted and thus dampens a current filament fire so that a flush of silos can be done in a controlled and secure manner. The purpose of this project was to investigate how the nitrogen shall be entered in a silo to achieve optimal gas distribution and thus skerställa to the siloinnehållet inerteras.
Publisher: SP | Author: Henry Persson, Per Blomqvist, Heimo Tuovinen
Job no: 602-071
| Year: 2009
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Fire test methods for plastic materials in low-voltage applications
SP fire technology and KTH, Department of fibre and polymer technology have jointly examined the sources of ignition and combustion behavior of a series of ten different polymer materials using a variety of methods.
Publisher: SP | Author: Per Blomqvist, Roland Creams
Job no: 600-061
| Year: 2007
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Flammable goods on sale – the basis for recommendations
Within trade handled a wide variety of products which are classified as "flammable". A very large proportion of these are sold in plastic bottles or aerosol containers. In the event of a fire in the premises there is a potential for a rapid fire progression if the flammable goods involved. The project aimed to develop a basis for supplementing recommendations concerning storage of flammable goods in sales premises, as well as to provide additional support to implement "special investigation" mentioned in the explosives of the Guardia Civil regulations SÄIFS 1996: 2.
Publisher: SP | Author: Magnus Bobert, Henry Persson
Job no: 634-051
| Year: 2007
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Extinguishing silobränder requires the right technology

Fires in silos is generally svårsläckta, and can be difficult to quantify risks to emergency services personnel. In order to gain a better understanding of fire detection and extinction events, SP fire technology has performed experiments with a "tornsilo" in model scale.
Publisher: SP | Author: Henry Persson, Per Blomqvist
Job No.: 632-051
| Year: 2006
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Fire and smoke spread in large industrial and production premises

Fires in the inventory is an important issue because the consequences can be very large. In this project is studying the fire spread beyond the initial fire of conventional pallställslagring and free stacking of pallets in large industrial facilities.
Publisher: SP | Author: Haukur Ingason, Anders Lönnermark
Job No.: 630-021
| Year: 2006
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Extinction affect the composition of brandrester

Fire tests have been carried out with car tyres or electrical and electronic equipment. The remains after fire trials have been analysed with regard to metals and various organic substances. The results are presented in the report which the comparisons are made between the various tests and limit values for contaminated land.
Publisher: SP | Author: Anders Lönnermark
Job No.: 633-051
| Year: 2005
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Calculate the fire trail from the ignition source to flashover
The project objective was to produce a calculation model based on CFD. The models have to calculate what happens at the fire so that they can design a building so securely and cost effectively as possible.
Publisher: Lund University | Author: Goran Holmstedt
Job no: 624-001
| Year: 2005
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The safety factor should be expected when dimensionerar gaseous fixed firefighting systems for room only?

Today the use of results from a small-scale test method, Cup-Burner tests, for dimensioning firefighting systems intended for shelters, so-called ' total flooding systems. " There is a large uncertainty about how to transfer data from the test method, where the flames are one cm in diameter, with the condition that exists in a room where a firefighting systems triggers. The report include a comprehensive test series with different extinguishing agents.
Publisher: Lund University | Author: Magnus Andersson, Pontus Skogetun
Job no: 613-991
| Year: 2004
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Fire ventilation in large industrial premises

There are two different systems for fire ventilation: fire ventilators and smoke fans. A well-known problem is to fire ventilators work badly (influx of uteluft instead of smoke evacuation). These shortcomings are partly due to pressure in and around buildings. Need for better design of brandgasevakuerings operations.
Publisher: Lund University | Author: Polina Gordonova
Job no: 603-971
| Year: 2004
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Evaluation and development of security systems against tillbakabrand of pellets and wood chip equipment
The combustion of solid fuels in bränslematade plants pose a risk that incidents will occur.
Publisher: SP | Author: Henrik Persson
Job no: 631-031
| Year: 2004
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Early detection in premises with high ceiling height

It is difficult to achieve early detection in premises with high ceiling height. When the fire is small, as in early stage of fire and light the fire so controlled smoke route to much of the "microclimate" in the room. This microclimate is composed of temperaturgradienter and air currents created by ventilation system, machinery, insolation, etc. Överslagsberäkningar gives the order to fire to control the air flow in the room is required in some cases, fires in the order of 1 MW.
Publisher: SP | Author: Petra Andersson, Mr Jan Blomqvist
Job no: 628-011
| Year: 2004
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Burning velocities of dust clouds

Despite a great deal of time spent in a number of countries to prevent dust explosions can occur, see this risk still exists in many industries. Therefore, it is necessary to use specific measures for the prevention of explosions but also to limit the impact of a possible explosion.
Publisher: University of Bergen | Author: Trygve Skjold
Job No.: 615-991
| Year: 2003
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Carbon monoxide is formed from soot and carbon dioxide in the hot gas layer

Soot in the hot gas layer increases the production of carbon monoxide (CO) at room fires. Soot reacts with carbon dioxide (CO2) at temperatures above 950 ° C and forming co. production of CO increases with increasing temperature and decreased oxygen availability. This can happen at room fires with explosive fire and high fire load emitting much soot. The rapid fire developments that the fire quickly becomes underventilerad.
Publisher: SP | Author: Heimo Tuovinen
Job No.: 621-001
| Year: 2003
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Good correlation Breslemetoden — laboratory measurements

A project that was carried out at SP had the objective to make the picture a little clearer with regard to the measurement of chlorides on surfaces will occur, and how the results should be assessed. The results gave some valuable information about what to consider when sampling, e.g. the glass is not a representative of the bonnet test area and therefore should be avoided. Soot on the surface says nothing about kloridhalten there. Furthermore, field measurement by Breslemetoden good compliance with laboratory measurements. Some useful information was also presented on the project around the threshold as to when to clean up.
Publisher: SP | Author: Magnus Palm
Job no: 626-011
| Year: 2002
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How long does the cable during a fire?
In many analyses used in industry (e.g. FHA Fire Hazard Analysis, PSA, Probabilistic Safety Analysis) in order to assess the fire safety level and the need for protection are needed to make an estimate of the components becomes corrupted due to a possible fire development. In many cases, the calculated radiation level and, above all, the temperature in the room as a result of the fire. Based on this calculation is then on components in the room.
Publisher: SP | Author: Petra Andersson, Bror Persson
Job No.: 625-001
| Year: 2001
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How does the air vent flame propagation in cables?

SP Swedish testing and Research Institute has studied how forced ventilation can impact fire events at a fire in wires. The study has focused on the cables installed in inaccessible areas, such as horizontal or vertical shafts where ventilation can have a significant impact. Computer simulations have also been implemented.
Publisher: SP | Author: Patrick van Hees, Jesper Blomqvist, Per
Job no: 623-001
| Year: 2003
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Turbulensmodeller of CFD codes

Gravity causes the hot gases rise, generates turbulence and cool by admixture of cold air. To describe how it is done is important to many industrial applications involving the fire and spread of fire gases and pollutants inside the premises and released to the atmosphere.
For fires, the model that describes the contribution of gravity into turmoil much important as it directly affects the air penetration in a brandplym and thus how quickly a room filled with smoke. The model also affects the temperature, gas concentration and gas velocity, and therefore how much heat that emanates from the flames.
Publisher: Lund University | Authors: Yan Zhenghua
Job no: 614-991
| Year: 1999
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Safety classification of goods provides safer sprinkler systems

In a warehouse is the stored goods, fire and släckegenskaper an important parameter when dimensionerar a sprinkler system. But there is a parameter which is often difficult to assess. By brandprova the goods, you can get much better information about the cargo fire and släckegenskaper. In a recently completed project has the classification borders drawn up in conformity with the European rules on the sprinkler system.
Publisher: SP | Author: Magnus Arvidson, Anders Lönnermark
Job number: 620-001
| Year: 2002
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New approach to fire safety in electronics

Society relies increasingly on reliable electronics products and electronic systems, such as communications, traffic management, payment systems and security systems in nuclear power plants as well as for controlling industrial processes and document management. Fires in these systems can interfere with important functions in society and businesses and cause fires in buildings.
Publisher: IVF Industrial Research and Development | Author: Carl Gunnar Bergendahl, Margaret Simonson, Jesper Axelsson, Dag Andersson
Job no: 618-991
| Year: 2001
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Flame propagation in stock

New research findings show that fire growth varies with the type of freight, storage height, their thermal properties and column width between the stored goods. Experience also shows that the fire growth is so fast that only the sprinkler can provide a high level of protection.
Publisher: SP | Author: Haukur Ingason
Job no: 602-971
| Year: 2002
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Early detection in premises with high ceiling height

It is difficult to detect a fire at an early stage if the room has a high ceiling height. Often puts the detectors in the ceiling. If the detector alerts or not depends upon the detector sensitivity and how much smoke that reaches the detector.
Publisher: SP | Author: Petra Andersson, Haukur Ingason
Job No.: 622-001
| Year: 2001
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Simultaneous use of sprinklers and smoke ventilation

It is not possible to give a general answer to the question of whether to permit automatic fire gas ventilation in sprinklade buildings or not. The issue must be discussed from case to case, depending on the system's ability to handle different situations, and what protection objectives it has. Certain guidelines can be summarized.
Publisher: SP | Job no: 608-971 | Year: 2001
Read the report: Simultaneous användninq of sprinkler and smoke ventilation, Haukur Ingason, Magnus Arvidson
Read the report:Interaction of sprinklers and fire ventilation, Haukur Ingason
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Fire data is desired for all cables

In most types of installations and structures are transferred power and control signals via some type of cables. Disruptions at abnormal impact occurs often on cables where they have a very big stretch relative to the components. Components are also much easier to protect because they are so compact. It is also possible to protect cables with different devices, but it will be very costly.
Publisher: SP | Author: Patrick van Hees, Petra Andersson
Job no: 612-991
| Year: 2001
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Self-ignition in Hay and straw
Fires in farm buildings often causes djurtragedier and has a major economic impact. In the past, it is known that the self heating can occur in wet plant material and that this can sometimes lead to spontaneous combustion, but the circumstances that cause this is not proven. In a pilot study in laboratory scale, discovered a possible link between oxygen-free conditions and self-heating.
Publisher: SINTEF Chemistry | Author: Tormod Briseid, Gudmunn Eidså
Job no: 619-991
| Year: 2000
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Computer-based risk analysis tool FREIA – now on the Internet
Sydkraft AB and fire technology, LTH, has developed a comprehensive suite of applications that can be used as a practical tool for risk assessment of power plants and other types of industries.
Publisher: Lund University + SP | Author: Goran Holmstedt, Sven Erik Magnusson, Björn Karlsson, Petra Andersson
Job No.: 616-991 + 617-991
| Year: 2001
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High-expansion foam system generated with rökbemängd air
The use of high-expansion foam system in firefighting systems for industrial plants is relatively limited. In recent years, however, interest has increased. due to a new lightweight foam systems have been developed which uses the air inside the fire room for production of foam.
Publisher: SP | Author: Magnus Bobert
Job no: 609-971
| Year: 2001
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CFD models provides better surface

CFD models generally provides a higher degree of detail information, which in turn creates a broad basis for assessing levels of safety in buildings, as well as improved dimensioning fire protection technical installations e.g. fire gas ventilation.
Publisher: FOI | Author: Bengt Hägglund, Per Walmerdahl, Mattias Delin, Micael Lundquist
Job no: 601-971
| Year: 2000
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New calculation model predicts the kolmonoxidproduktionen in room fires better
Large amounts of carbon monoxide can be formed in the hot gas layer at room fires. Especially if the fire gases consist of high levels incompletely burnt products and soot, in combination with the lack of oxygen and high temperature, the production of carbon monoxide increase dramatically.
Publisher: SP | Author: Heimo Tuovinen, Margaret Simonson
Job no: 607-971
| Year: 2000
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Acute errors in digital electronics to fire
The average user looks like all the advantages of electronics development. The modern digital technology, however, are more vulnerable to fire than older electronics.
Publisher: SP | Author: Sören Isaksson
Job no: 610-981
| Year: 2000
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